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"Зовнішня торгівля: економіка, фінанси, право" з економічних та юридичних наук 

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UDC 347.152:616-036.21 DOI: https://doi.org/10.31617/zt.knute.2020(110)06
   
RASSOMAKHINA Olha

 
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ORCID: 0000-0003-2862-8169
Candidate of Juridical Sciences, Associate Professor at the Department of International private, commercial and civil law Kyiv National University of Trade and Economics
19, Kyoto str., Kyiv, 02156, Ukraine
   
 

 LEGAL PERSONALITY OF INDIVIDUALS UNDER QUARANTINE 

Background. In accordance with the orders of Ukrainian government, quarantine has been introduced throughout Ukraine. In addition, an emergency regime has been established throughout Ukraine. Thus, today in Ukraine there are two interrelated legal regimes: the quarantine regime and the emergency regime.This event, caused by objective factors, created significant legal consequences for the whole world, Ukrainian society in particular, significantly affected the dynamics of civil relations in the country.
Analysis of recent research and publications.The current state of research on the problems of legal capacity of an individual is characterized by the lack of general comprehensive studies, including dissertations, on this issue in domestic civil science. The question of the peculiarities of the legal capacity of individuals in emergencies, caused by pandemics, in particular COVID-19, caused by the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, in domestic and foreign science have not yet been studied.
The aim of the article is to determine the features of legal capacity of individuals in an emergency situation, caused by the spread of respiratory disease COVID-19, caused by coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, and the main areas of civil relations, that have changed.
Materials and methods. The normative basis of the study is the Constitution of Ukraine, the Civil Code of Ukraine, the Law of Ukraine on Amendments to Certain Legislative Acts Aimed at Providing Additional Social and Economic Guarantees in Connection with the Spread of Coronavirus (COVID-2019), Cabinet of Ministers Resolution On prevention of the spread of acute respiratory disease COVID-19 caused by coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 on the territory of Ukraine. The methodological basis of the study is general scientific and special legal methods of cognition.
Results. The civil legal capacity of individuals is defined in civil law in order to ensure the satisfaction of private rights and interestsof individuals.Civil legal capacity and competence provides a wide range of rights, duties and responsibility of individuals.In the context of quarantine and emergency, thecivil legal capacityof individuals has also changed. The novelties of legislative regulation are: employment; credit benefits for the borrowers; tax benefits fortaxpayers; social protection of the unemployed persons; civil terms; realization of the right to judicial protection; bankruptcy of individuals; state regulation of prices for social products; restrictions on the time of quarantine; restriction of the right to freedom of movement.
Conclusion. Under quarantine conditions, the scope of civil rights of individuals is limited and narrowed, and civil legal capacity as a whole.However, there are new types of benefits: tax, credit, financial. The state and the legislator focus on addressing issues of protection of life and health of the population, create a mechanism for the implementation and protection of the right to health and the right to safe environment, and limit a number of other human rights and freedoms, focusing on basic human needs, in clothing, housing, food.
With the termination of quarantine, the scope of civil rights and obligations of individuals must be returned to normal legal regime.
 
Keywords: legal regime of the emergency situation, individual, civil capacity, civil rights and duties, civil responsibility, civil legal relations.

 

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