Проводимо набір статей до публікації у науковому фаховому журналі
"Зовнішня торгівля: економіка, фінанси, право" з економічних та юридичних наук 

   FREE FULL TEXT (PDF) 

UDC 339.924   DOI: https://doi.org/10.31617/zt.knute.2020(109)04
     
SALIKHOVA Olena

 
E-mail: Ця електронна адреса захищена від спам-ботів. вам потрібно увімкнути JavaScript, щоб побачити її.
ORCID: 0000-0002-7669-6601
  Doctor of Economics, Leading Researcher at the Department of Modeling and Forecasting of Economic Development, SI "Institute of Economics and Forecasting of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine"
26, Panas Myrnyi str., Kyiv, 01011, Ukraine
     
HONCHARENKO Daria
 
 
E-mail: Ця електронна адреса захищена від спам-ботів. вам потрібно увімкнути JavaScript, щоб побачити її.
ORCID: 0000-0003-4937-2596
  Chief Specialist at the Department of Basic Industries of the Main Directorate of Industries of the Directorate of Industrial Policy and Promotion of Regional Development, Ministry for Development of Economy, Trade and Agriculture of Ukraine
12/2 M. Hrushevskyi str., Kyiv, 01008, Ukraine
 
 

PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY OF MEXICO: A LESSON FOR UKRAINE 

Background. In Ukraine, in response to the challenges of the pandemic, the government adopted a State program to stimulate the economy to overcome the negative consequences caused by restrictive measures. This is the first step towards the creation of innovative products in Ukraine and the foundation on their basis of new drug production. An example is the Mexican steroid hormone industry: the rise and fall of this industry deserves substantive study to take into account when determining priorities in the development of pharmaceuticals in Ukraine.
Analysis of recent researches and publications revealed that scientific works are mainly focused on summarizing the positive experiences of countries that have developed the pharmaceutical industry. A number of works are devoted to the phenomenon of the Mexican industry of steroid hormones, at the same time, negative events and erroneous political decisions that led to the decline of the industry are ignored, and therefore it is impossible to take this experience into account and formulate appropriate warnings for Ukraine.
The aim of the article is to identify key challenges and threats to the formation and development of the pharmaceutical industry (using the Mexican steroid hormone industry as an example) and to determine the role of political influence on the competition for resources.
Materials and methods. The theoretical and methodological basis for writing the article was scientific concepts and theoretical developments on the innovative development of the industry, as well as the theory of dependencies; the work of Mexican and Western economists; US Congressional Archival Materials and Reports. The study was carried out using methods of theoretical generalization, comparative analysis and synthesis.
Results. «Multi-layer» dependence on foreign influence played a significant role in growing industry. Foreign entrepreneurs and scientists, foreign equipment’s and transfer of technologies for upgrading, external market had crucial to development of industry. Mexican government’s policy to remove protective barriers, as well as the position of non-intervention, the lack of an industry development strategy and mechanisms for support influenced the decline of Mexico’s steroid hormone industry.
Conclusion. Creating an innovative product in the pharmaceutical industry of Ukraine and establishing a successful startup based on it requires state aid. Building a national innovation system and improving the framework conditions for innovation is the key to the formation of domestic pharmaceutical industries on the basis of endogenous innovation.
 
Keywords: pharmaceutical industry, technologies, innovations, pharmaceuticals, multinational corporations, dependence, market, state policy.

 

REFERENCES 

  1. Coronavirus: What the BMBF is doing. Retrieved from https://www.bmbf.de/ en/coronavirus-what-the-bmbf-is-doing-11194.html [in English].
  2. Trump administration says drug makers will work together to combat coronavirus. Retrieved from https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-usa-drugmakers/ trump-administration-says-drug-makers-will-work-together-to-combat-coronavirus-idUSKBN20Q042 [in English].
  3. Pro zatverdzhennja Derzhavnoi' programy stymuljuvannja ekonomiky dlja podo­lannja negatyvnyh naslidkiv, sprychynenyh obmezhuval'nymy zahodamy shhodo zapobigannja vynyknennju i poshyrennju gostroi' respiratornoi' hvoroby COVID-19, sprychynenoi' koronavirusom SARS-CoV-2, na 2020–2022 roky [On approval of the State program of economic stimulation to overcome the negative consequences caused by restrictive measures to prevent the occurrence and spread of acute respiratory disease COVID-19 caused by coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, for 2020-2022]. Retrieved from https://www.kmu.gov.ua/npas/pro-zatverdzhennya-derzhavnoyi-programi-stimulyuvannya-ekonomiki-534-270520. [in Ukrainian].
  4. Salihova, O. B. (2012). Vysokotehnologichni vyrobnyctva: vid metodologii' ocinky do pidnesennja v Ukrai'ni. NAN Ukrai'ny. Instytut ekonomiky ta prognozuvannja. Kyi'v [High-tech industries: from valuation methodology to rise in Ukraine. NAS of Ukraine.Institute of Economics and Forecasting. Kyiv] [in Ukrainian].
  5. Honcharenko, D. O. (2020). New Approaches to the Assessment of Foreign Trade in High-Tech Pharmaceuticals. Statystyka Ukrainy – Statistics of Ukraine, 1, 35-41. Doi: 10.31767/su. 1(88)2020.01.04 [in Ukrainian]. https://doi.org/10.31767/su.1(88)2020.01.04
  6. Laveaga, G. S. (2005). Uncommon trajectories: steroid hormones, Mexican peasants, and the search for a wild yam. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, (Vol. 36), (Iss. 4),  (pp. 743-760) [in English]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.shpsc.2005.09.007
  7. Russell Marker and the Mexican Steroid Hormone Industry. International Historic Chemical Landmark Retrieved from https://www.acs.org/content/acs/en/education/ whatischemistry/landmarks/progesteronesynthesis.html [in English].
  8. Gereffi, G. (2017). The Pharmaceutical Industry and Dependency in the Third World. Princeton University Press [in English].
  9. Shadlen, K. (2017). Coalitions and compliance: the political economy of pharma­ceutical patents in Latin America. Oxford, UK : Oxford University Press [in English]. https://doi.org/10.1093/oso/9780199593903.001.0001
  10. Becerril-Ruiz, V., Ortiz-Reynoso, M., & Santillán-Benítez, J. (2018). Historia de la regulación de los medicamentos genéricos en México: 1977 a la fecha. TIP Revista Especializada en Ciencias Químico-Biológicas. №21(Supl. 1) P. 88-100 Retrieved from  https://www.medigraphic.com/pdfs/revespciequibio/cqb-2018/cqbs181i.pdf [in Spanish]. https://doi.org/10.22201/fesz.23958723e.2018.0.144
  11. Murillo, D. (2019). Inversión extranjera, derramas tecnológicas y desarrollo industrial en México. Fondo de Cultura Economica. [in Spanish].
  12. Rios, E., & Contreras, I. (2019). Rendimientos a escala en la industria farmacéutica mundial: La importancia de la evaluación de los gastos en fusiones y adquisiciones, 2012-2017. Revista de Análisis Económico, 85, (Vol. 34), (pr. 95-120) [in Spanish]. https://doi.org/10.24275/uam/azc/dcsh/ae/2019v34n85/Rios
  13. Hernandez, Garcia Y., Chamizo, J., Kleiche, Dray M., & Russell, J. (2016). The scientific impact of mexican steroid research 1935–1965: A bibliometric and historiographic analysis. Journal of the Association for Information Science & Technology, Association for Information Science & Technology, (Vol. 67(5), (pp. 1245-1256) [in English]. https://doi.org/10.1002/asi.23493
  14. Reséndiz, R., Pastrana, P., & Aceves, L. (2019). La Industria Nacional Químico-Farmacéutica, S.A. de C.V. y P.E. (1949-1964). Un modelo sobresaliente de organización científica y empresarial. Educación química, (Vol. 30), 1, 149-160 Retrieved from http://www.scielo.org.mx/pdf/eq/v30n1/0187-893X-eq-30-01-149.pdf [in Spanish]. https://doi.org/10.22201/fq.18708404e.2019.1.65578
  15. Ostashko, T. O. (2019). Strukturni zminy u svitovij torgivli jak chynnyk rozvytku vnutrishn'ogo rynku Ukrai'ny. NAN Ukrai'ny, DU «Instytut ekonomiky ta prognozuvannja NAN Ukrai'ny». Kyi'v [ Structural changes in world trade as a factor in the development of the domestic market of Ukraine: a collective monograph / ed. by Dr. Econ. Sciences, Corresponding Member NAAS of Ukraine; NAS of Ukraine, SI «Institute of Economics and Forecasting of NAS of Ukraine». Kyiv], Retrieved from http://ief.org.ua/docs/mg/310.pdf [in Ukrainian].
  16. Tkach, O. (2009). Strategii' regional'noi' ta nacional'noi' integracii' krai'n Latyns'koi' Ameryky [Strategies of regional and national integration of Latin American countries]. Politychnyj menedzhment – Political management, 1. 140-146 [in Ukrainian].
  17. Perga, T. Ju. (2017). Osoblyvosti social'no-ekonomichnogo rozvytku Meksyky u 40-70-h rr HH stolittja [Features of socio-economic development of Mexico in the 40-70's of the twentieth century] Amerykans'ka istorija ta polityka – American history and politics. (223-232). Retrieved from http://elibrary.ivinas.gov.ua/433/1/ 2017.03%20_%20Perha.pdf [in Ukrainian]. https://doi.org/10.17721/2521-1706.2017.03.223-232
  18. Laveaga, G. S. (2009). Jungle Laboratories: Mexican Peasants, National Projects, and the Making of the Pill Duke University Press [in English].
  19. Reséndiz, R., & Pastrana, P. (2014). El surgimiento de la industria farmacéutica en México (1917-1940). Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Farmacéuticas, (Vol. 45), 2,
    55-68 [in Spanish].
  20. Olivares, L. F. (2001). El origen de Syntex, una enseñanza histórica en el contexto de ciencia, tecnología y sociedad. Rev. Soc. Quím. Méx. (Vol. 45), (pp. 93-96) [in Spanish].
  21. Djerassi, C. (1990). Steroids made it possible. American Chemical Society. Washington [in English].
  22. Gereffi, G. (1977). Los oligopolios internacionales, el Estado y el desarrollo industrial en México: el caso de la industria de hormonas esteroides. Foro Internacional, (Vol. 17), 4 (68), 490-541[in Spanish].
  23. Raber, L. (1999). Steroid industry honored. International historic chemical landmark acclaims success of mexican steroid industry and a U.S. chemist who made it possible. Journal of the Mexican Chemical Society, (Vol. 43), 6, 235-237 [in English]. https://doi.org/10.1021/cen-v077n043.p078
  24. Berge, W. (2000). Cartels: Challenge to a Free World. Beard Books [in English].
  25. Maddison project database 2018. University of Groningen. Retrieved from https://www.rug.nl/ggdc/historicaldevelopment/maddison/releases/maddison-project- database-2018?lang=en [in English].
  26. Política fiscal e industria en Monterrey (1940-1960) Retrieved from http://eprints.uanl.mx/6360/1/1080095046.PDF [in English].
  27. Wonder Drugs: hearings before the United States Senate Committee on the Judiciary, Subcommittee on Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights, Eighty-Fourth Congress, second session, on July 5, 6, 1956. Washington : U.S. G.P.O., 1957 [in English].
  28. Report of the committee on foreign relations on Executive I, Eighty-fifth Congress, First Session. United States Government Printing Office. June 14, 1957. [in English].
  29. Securities and Exchange Commission. News Digest. A brief summary of financial proposals filed with and actions by the S.E.C. Retrieved from https://www.sec.gov/ news/digest/1957/dig072657.pdf  [in English].
  30. Report of the Committee on the Judiciary, United States Senate, made by its Subcommittee on Antitrust and Monopoly, pursuant to S. Res. 52, Eighty-seventh Congress, first session, together with individual views to study the Antitrust laws of the United States, and their administration, interpretation, and effect. Study of administered prices in the drug industry. Washington: U.S. Govt. Print. Off, 1961. [in English].
  31. Hernandez-Garcia, Y. I., Chamizo, J. A., Kleiche-Dray, M., & Russell, J. M. (2016). The scientific impact of mexican steroid research 1935–1965: a bibliometric and historiographic analysis. JASIST, 67 (5), 1245–1256 [in English]. https://doi.org/10.1002/asi.23493
  32. Fajnzylber, F. (1976). Tarragó Trinidad Martínez. Las empresas transnacionales: expansión a nivel mundial y proyección en la industria mexicana. Fondo de Cultura Económica [in Spanish].
  33. Santos, T. (1970). The Structure of Dependence. The American Economic Review. (Vol. 60), 2, Papers and Proceedings of the Eighty-second Annual Meeting of the American Economic Association. (231-236) [in English].
  34. Meier Gerald, M. (1963). International trade and development. Harper & Row [in English].
  35. Pfeffer, J. & Salancik, G. R. (1978). The External Control of Organizations: A Resource Dependence Perspective, Harper & Row, New York [in English].
  36. Dunning, J. (2001). The Eclectic (OLI) Paradigm of International Production: Past, Present and Future. Economics of Business, (Vol. 8), 2, 173-190 [in English]. https://doi.org/10.1080/13571510110051441
  37. Rodríguez, O. (1971). Informe sobre las ori ticas a la concepcion de la CEPAL. Curso de desarrollo y planificacion, CDP/27. Retrieved from https://repositorio.cepal.org/ bitstream/handle/11362/35092/INT-2424_es.pdf [in Spanish].
  38. Santos, T. (1970). The Structure of Dependence The American Economic Review (Vol. 60), 2, Papers and Proceedings of the Eighty-second Annual Meeting of the American Economic Association, (pp. 231-236). Retrieved from http://digamo.free.fr/ dosantos70.pdf [in English].
  39. Senghaas, D. (1991). Friedrich List and the Basic Problems of Modern Development. Review (Fernand Braudel Center), (Vol. 14), 3, 451-467 [in English].
  40. Schumpeter, Joseph A. Capitalism, Socialism, & Democracy. Retrieved from https://eet.pixel-online.org/files/etranslation/original/Schumpeter,%20Capitalism,%20 Socialism%20and%20Democracy.pdf [in English].
  41. Salihova, O. B., & Krehivs'kyj, O. V. (2018). [Novyj mehanizm derzhavnoi' pidtrymky tehnologichnyh innovacij dlja rozvytku promyslovosti h Novyj mehanizm derzhavnoi' pidtrymky tehnologichnyh innovacij dlja rozvytku promyslovosti]. Statystyka Ukrai'ny – Statistics of Ukraine, 2, 30-35 [in Ukrainian].
  42. Gyrshfel'd, A., & Salyhova, E. (2019). Vagonnыe sporы. Levыj bereg [Carriage disputes. Left Coast]. Retrieved from https://lb.ua/economics/2019/07/02/ 431000_vagonnie_spori.htm [in Ukrainian].
  43. Salihova, O. B. (2020). Vysokotehnologichna ekonomika. Uroky Kytaju [High-tech economy. Lessons from China]. Visnyk KNTEU – Herald of KNUTE, 3, 27-49 [in Ukrainian].