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"Зовнішня торгівля: економіка, фінанси, право" з економічних та юридичних наук 

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Zakharchuk A. Instytut pryvatnoi' vlasnosti. Zovnishnja torgivlja: ekonomika, finansy, pravo. 2021. № 1. S. 23-31. Serija. Jurydychni nauky

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UDC 342.513   DOI: https://doi.org/10.31617/zt.knute.2021(114)03
     
ZAKHARCHUK Andriy
  
E-mail: Ця електронна адреса захищена від спам-ботів. вам потрібно увімкнути JavaScript, щоб побачити її.
ORCID: 0000-0001-8224-9210
  Doctor of Law, Professor, Professor at the Department of Legal Support of Business Activity, Kyiv National University of Trade and Economics
19, Kyoto str., Kyiv, 02156, Ukraine

THE INSTITUTE OF PRIVATE PROPERTY

Background. The institution of private property is constituted as a component of inalienable natural human rights, a guarantor of freedom and equality of subjects of public relations. This mechanism works objectively, regardless of the aspirations of the individual or the state. Therefore, the implementation of these relations requires legal protection of property.
Materials and methods. The theoretical basis of the article are scientific works of scientists, normative methodological – general scientific and special legal methods of cognition.
The aim of this paper is an analysis of the definition of «private property»as a category, which is caused both by the development of human civilization as a whole and the specifics of its design in Ukraine, as well as the mechanisms for its protection.
Results. The definition of «private property»as a legal category due to the development of human civilization as a whole and the specifics of its constitution in Ukraine. Theoretical and legal substantiation of the phenomenon of «private property», in its modern sense, was preceded by the development of ideas about the nature, content, role and functions of private property. One of the factors that led to the progress of social relations was the transition from collective to private ownership.
Conclusion. The evolution of the institution of private property reflects the mechanism of integration of the individual into society and, subsequently, separation from him as a gradual and long process. The society of Ancient Rome formed the institution of private property, which was implemented in the system of European law. It is based on the idea of individual freedom.
In a market economy based on private ownership of the means of production, the economic mechanism operates without external state intervention. It does not require additional incentives to make a legitimate profit, special legal mechanisms other than the protection of property and the performance of the contract. Therefore, in modern European law, the concept of positive obligations of the state is aimed at protecting the institution of property rights, an effective component of which is the European Court of Human Rights.
Therefore, the concept of positive obligations of the state in the field of human rights in general, and the institution of private property, in particular, requires a deep understanding of the decisions of the ECtHR and consistent implementation in the legal system of Ukraine.

Keywords:
private property, ownership, human rights, state, positive responsibilities of the state.
 

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