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"Зовнішня торгівля: економіка, фінанси, право" з економічних та юридичних наук 

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Molchanova E., Kovtonyuk K. Modeli dydzhytal-torhivli. Zovnishnja torgivlja: ekonomika, finansy, pravo. 2021. № 2. S. 56-72. Serija. Ekonomichni nauky.

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UDC 339:004.738.5   DOI: https://doi.org/10.31617/zt.knute.2021(115)04

JEL Classification: F02, F19

   
MOLCHANOVA Ellana
 
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ORCID: 0000-0001-8043-1916
  Candidate of Sciences (Economics), Associate Professor at the Department of International Management
Kyiv National University of Trade and Economics
19, Kyoto str., Kyiv, 02156, Ukraine
     

KOVTONIUK Kateryna

 
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ORCID: 0000-0002-8105-0469

  Candidate of Sciences (Economics), Associate Professor at the Department of International Economics
SHEE «Kyiv National Economic University named
after Vadym Hetman
»
54/1, Prospect Peremohy, Kyiv, 03057, Ukraine

MODELS OF DIGITAL TRADE
 
Background. Digital commerce or trade is based on the movement of data: data is a means of production, an asset that can be traded, as well as funds by which certain services are traded and global value chains are organized.
An analysis of recent research and publications has shown that research on this topic is highlighted by scientific representatives from the Cambridge School of Science and Columbia University. The problem of Western scholars' research is the lack of a single definition of digital commerce or trade, but the consensus is achieved that it includes digital rights transactions in trade in goods and services that can be delivered digitally or physically to consumers, firms and governments.
The aim of this research is to analyze approaches to the definition of «digital trade», to determine its main types and models.
Materials and methods. The main research methods are logical, analytical and graphical research methods.
Results. «Digitalization of trade» is a fairly new concept, so the scientific community has not yet been able to achieve unanimity for the formulation of its essence. In addition, the categories of «e-commerce» and «digital trade» have substantial similarities. Both concepts are related to the use of digital technology, the movement of data. Digital Trade is a tradable asset and a means by which global value chains are organized and services are provided. It also reinforces physical trade by simplifying the process itself. The data also underpins the most progressive and fast-growing models of service delivery, such as cloud computing, the Internet of Things (IoT), and additive manufacturing.
However, we can conclude that the difference between these categories lies in the stages of development of Internet technologies. If in the 1990s the concept of e-commerce only began to appear, and transactions using computer networks were primitive, now it has become a more complex concept – digital trade, which enjoys the benefits of such technologies, namely: blockchain, IoT, automation and robotics, artificial intelligence, 5G mobile coverage, cloud computing, 3D printing, etc.
Conclusion. In summary, we can conclude that digital commerce or trade is a fairly broad concept that encompasses not only the sale of consumer goods online and the delivery of online services, but also the data flows that provide global value chains. The classification of the concept of digital trade is not sufficiently developed, because it still remains new and the fastest growing. Today, two classification characteristics of digital trade have become widespread - by objects and subjects. Digital trade models reflect certain trends, namely: the penetration of international trade deeper into national economies; households and consumers become traders in new ways, acting as a company that provides services and goods; data flows are becoming a key new area of management.
The prospects for further research on the outlined issues are the analysis of the inclusion of sections on digitalization in the structure of trade agreements on free trade.

 
Key words: digital trade, IoT, digital infrastructure goods and services, digital services and digital goods.
 
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